The prognosis for people with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is relatively good, in general, with the appropriate treatment.
People with essential thrombocythemia typically have a normal lifespan. People with polycythemia vera (PV) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF) may have a shorter-than-normal life, living maybe more than 10 years from diagnosis with PV and possibly less time with PMF.
Many factors can affect the outlook for an individual, including their degree of myelofibrosis, the percentage of blasts (abnormal blood stem cells) in their blood and bone marrow, and any chromosome abnormalities they may have.
MPN can change over time, progressing from early chronic phases to accelerated phases. This can be followed either by burn-out phases (when the bone marrow is “burned out” and doesn’t make enough healthy blood cells) or by a blast crisis (when the disease resembles acute leukemia and there is an increase in the number of abnormal stem cells in your bone marrow or blood; this is a reason your doctor might recommend chemotherapy).