The removal of a sample of tissue or fluid that is examined to see whether cancer is present. This may be done with a large needle or through surgical removal of tissue or fluids.
In cancer, a grade is a description of a tumor based on how abnormal the cancer cells and tissue look under a microscope and how quickly the cancer cells are likely to grow and spread.
In cancer, a grade is a description of a tumor based on how abnormal the cancer cells and tissue look under a microscope and how quickly the cancer cells are likely to grow and spread. Low-grade cancer cells look more like normal cells and tend to grow and spread more slowly than high-grade cancer cells. Grading systems are different for each type of cancer. They are used to help plan treatment and determine prognosis. Also called histologic grade and tumor grade.
In medicine, a process that makes pictures of areas inside the body. Imaging uses methods such as X-rays (high-energy radiation), ultrasound (high-energy sound waves) and radio waves.
A physician who has special training in identifying diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope.
A physician who has special training in creating and interpreting pictures of areas inside the body. The pictures are made with X-rays, sound waves or other types of energy.
The extent of a cancer in the body. Staging is usually based on the size of the tumor, whether lymph nodes contain cancer and whether the cancer has spread from the original site to other parts of the body.
Cancer that forms in the glandular tissue that lines certain internal organs and makes and releases substances in the body, such as mucus, digestive juices or other fluids.
A biopsy shows if you have cancer. It will also give details about the type of cancer you have. Most bladder cancers are a type called urothelial cancer. But there are many rare histologic types, called variants. Some examples are squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, micropapillary, sarcomatoid, nested, plasmacytoid and neuroendocrine variants.
The extent of the cancer — how far it has spread — matters, too. Your care team needs to know if your cancer sits on or in the first lining of your bladder (non-muscle invasive), if it goes into the bladder muscle wall (muscle-invasive) or if it has spread to distant parts of your body (metastatic).
We also compare the cancer cells to normal cells to tell the cancer grade. The grade helps your doctors predict how your bladder cancer will behave (how aggressive it is).
At Fred Hutch, we have a great deal of experience with all forms of bladder cancer. We have pathologists and radiologists who specialize in diagnosing these cancers. They will give your treating doctors the details needed to tailor your care to you.
We often take another look at the test results and imaging that patients have had elsewhere. This allows us to update your exact diagnosis and disease stage in important ways that can affect your treatment choices.
Cancer that forms in the glandular tissue that lines certain internal organs and makes and releases substances in the body, such as mucus, digestive juices or other fluids. Most cancers of the breast, pancreas, lung, prostate, colon, esophagus and stomach are adenocarcinomas.