A healthy lifestyle can influence your likelihood of cancer and other chronic diseases. Healthy eating and good nutrition are simple lifestyle choices that may prevent cancer, and should begin in childhood. A healthy diet starts with the basics: enjoy eating a variety of whole, plant-based foods, and avoid processed products.
- Fruits & Vegetables
- Bone Health
- Benefits of a Good Diet
- Red Meat and Grilling
- Meet a Nutritionist
Fat is a necessary part of a healthy diet. Fat contains important nutrients, including vitamins A, D, E and K, and is needed for the life of each cell in your body.
More research is needed to determine the effect fat has on cancer, but it is recommended to reduce the amount of fat of animal origin (butter, meat) that you eat, while increasing your intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are known to reduce the risk of heart attack, but their role in preventing cancer, if any, needs further research.
- Choose healthy fats, including monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats. These can lower LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and increase HDL (“good”) cholesterol. See chart below for details.
- Limit your intake of saturated fats and avoid trans-fatty acids. These can increase LDL cholesterol. Saturated fats are found primarily in animal products, and trans-fats are found primarily in processed foods. Look for the word “hydrogenated” in an ingredient list as an indicator for trans-fats.
- Eat foods containing omega-3 fatty acids two to three times weekly. The omega-3 fatty acids in fish (EPA and DHA) appear to provide protection against cancer and heart disease. Ground flaxseeds contain a different form of omega-3-fatty acid (alpha-linoleic acid = “ALA”). There is some evidence that flaxseeds, but not flaxseed oil, may be protective against cancer. Flaxseeds are also rich in fiber.
Types of Fat
|Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Half and Half
Palm kernel oil
|Most margarines (especially stick margarine)
Vegetable shortening (Crisco)
Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil
Deep fried chips
Many fast foods
Most commercial baked foods (cookies, crackers, chips, cake mixes, some cereals and frozen entrees)
Plant-based food choices are the first step in building a lifelong healthy diet. Some research studies have found that eating fruits and vegetables may reduce your risk of developing cancer. Other studies have found a significant association between eating vegetables and a lower risk of cancer.
Fruits and vegetables provide the vitamins, minerals and fiber that your body needs. They're also packed with hundreds of disease-fighting phytochemicals—natural substances that work as a team to protect good health. Only fruits and vegetables, not pills or supplements, can provide these nutrients and phytochemicals, as well as fiber.
The different colors of fruits and vegetables—green, yellow/orange, red, blue/purple and white—all contain unique varieties of disease-fighting phytochemicals that work together to protect your health. Here are some examples of the phytochemicals found in various fruits and vegetables. Try to eat a variety of “colors” each day.
Carotenoids are found in red, yellow or orange fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes, sweet potatoes and carrots.
Lycopene is found in tomato-based foods, such as tomato sauce and tomato paste, as well as in watermelon, pink grapefruit, papaya and apricots.
Lutein and zeaxanthin
Lutein and zeaxanthin are found in leafy greens, such as spinach and romaine lettuce.
Flavonoids are found in brightly colored fruits and vegetables, such as blueberries, cherries and strawberries. Further research is needed to study the role of flavonoids in reducing cancer risk.
In addition to eating a variety of fruits of vegetables, the type of fruits and vegetables can also make a difference. Cruciferous vegetables may protect against cancer. These include broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kale, chard, collards and mustard greens. Think Crunchy! Cruciferous vegetables contain compounds that boost the production of certain enzymes that can protect cells against cancer-causing agents.
What’s a serving size?
Use these measurements to determine a serving size:
- 1 cup salad greens
- 1/4 cup dried fruit
- One medium piece of fruit or 1/2 cup cut-up fruit
- 3/4 cup or 6 ounces fruit juice.
Fiber is the part of a plant the body does not digest, but it is still necessary for health. There are two types, soluble fiber and insoluble fiber.
When eaten regularly as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet, soluble fiber can help lower blood cholesterol, mainly be lowering LDL-cholesterol or “bad” cholesterol. Soluble fiber absorbs fluid in your digestive track and thickens stool. Soluble fiber is found in yams, potatoes, winter squash, beets and certain fruits. Oats have the highest proportion of soluble fiber of any grain.
Insoluble fiber, also known as “roughage,” helps food digest faster to promote normal bowel function. Foods high in insoluble fiber include whole-wheat breads, wheat cereals, wheat bran, corn bran, and many vegetables such as broccoli, carrots, tomatoes, cauliflower, as well as seeds (pumpkin seeds; flaxseeds), and nuts.
Read food labels to help you estimate and increase your daily fiber intake.
There is some evidence that soy may help prevent cancer, and more evidence that it can help to reduce heart disease. However, we do not know how much soy you need to eat in order to help prevent cancer.
Soy contains phytonutrients called isoflavones. Researchers think that isoflavones may prevent more advanced stages of cancer from developing. Soy may cause some gastrointestinal upset (such as gas), so if you do not eat soy foods regularly now, it may be better to introduce them to your diet gradually over several weeks. In some cases, as in estrogen-positive breast cancer, soy is not a good thing to eat at all. So be sure to consult your doctor.
Sources of soy
(In order of most to least amount of isoflavones):
- Soynuts, dry roasted, 1/2 cup
- Edamame (green soybeans), 1/2 cup
- Tempeh, uncooked, 4 ounces
- Soy protein powder, 1 ounce
- Soy flour, 1/4 cup
- Tofu, 4 ounces
- Soy milk (1 cup or 8 ounces)
- Miso dry soup mix, 1 ounce
- Soy cheese, 1 ounce.
Cancer treatment may result in a loss of bone density. It is important to consume enough calcium and vitamin D to help keep your bones strong. Exercise is also important to prevent osteoporosis.
The role of calcium in cancer is unclear. Too much may increase the risk of cancer, while too little calcium may increase the risk of colon cancer. Avoid consuming more than 2000 mg. of calcium daily from food and supplements.
Your calcium requirements will vary, depending on whether or not you are receiving hormone therapy and whether or not you have osteoporosis.
If you have had a normal DEXA scan and you are not receiving androgen suppression therapy, you need between 1000 and 1200 mg. of calcium a day.
If you have osteoporosis or osteopenia or are receiving androgen suppression therapy, you need 1500 mg. of calcium per day.
An SCCA dietitian can give you more information about calcium from foods and calcium supplements. If you do not consume enough calcium in food, you should take a supplement. Divide your intake of calcium supplements throughout the day to maximize absorption, and try not to take more than 500 mg. at a single time from food and supplements. Calcium carbonate supplements should be taken with meals for best absorption. Calcium citrate can be taken between or with meals.
Vitamin D is a hormone that, with adequate sun exposure, can be manufactured in the body. However, if you wear sunscreen you may not make enough vitamin D. In addition, as you grow older your ability to manufacture vitamin D declines. Vitamin D helps the body utilize calcium and phosphorus to build bones and teeth. Preliminary research suggests that vitamin D may reduce the risk of breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Many people, especially those over 60, are deficient in vitamin D. Therefore, it is best to get vitamin D from food, a multivitamin supplement or a calcium supplement that includes vitamin D.
Daily Vitamin D requirements:
- Males under 70: 400-600 IU
- Males, 70 years and older: 600 IU
- Males with osteopenia, osteoporosis or who are receiving androgen suppression therapy: 800 IU.
Sources of vitamin D include:
- Salmon, tuna, and mackerel
- Fortified milk, soy milk or yogurt
- Fortified orange juice
- Fortified cereal
- Multiple vitamin supplements or a calcium supplement with vitamin D.
Check labels of fortified foods for vitamin D content (Hint: “25 percent DV” = 100 IU vitamin D).
Food is the best sources of nutrients. If you choose to take supplements, be sure to choose supplements with appropriate amounts of vitamins, minerals or other chemicals. Please speak with a dietitian before taking supplements. Remember, an appropriate dose of a supplement for one disease may not be the correct dose for another disease.
Multiple vitamin and mineral supplements
If you avoid specific groups of foods, such as meat, milk, cheese, eggs, or fruit, you may need to take a multiple vitamin/mineral supplement in order to get some of the nutrients these foods supply. A multiple vitamin/mineral supplement also provides vitamin D. Look for a supplement with 100 percent of the daily value for most of the vitamins and minerals.
The role of selenium supplements in reducing the risk of cancer is not clear. One study showed that only people with low blood selenium levels benefited from taking selenium supplements. Other studies have suggested a potential increased risk of some types of cancer for persons taking selenium supplements. Based on current knowledge, the best source of selenium is food. Foods rich in selenium include Brazil nuts, wheat germ, bran, brown rice, whole wheat bread, barley, onions, garlic, turnips, soybeans, mushrooms, fish, and eggs.
Studies of the role of vitamin E in cancer prevention have reached various conclusions. Some showed that vitamin E had no effect; others showed a positive effect or a positive effect only for former smokers. The amounts of vitamin E given to participants in these studies were 50 mg. or less.
One study currently underway to evaluate the effectiveness of selenium and vitamin E supplements in cancer prevention may provide further information. Until more is known regarding the role of vitamin E supplementation in cancer, focus on consuming foods rich in vitamin E. These include nuts (such as almonds, hazelnuts and peanuts), vegetable oils (olive and canola), seeds, wheat germ and whole-grain products, and spinach and other dark, green leafy vegetables.
The safety of lycopene supplements in cancer has not been tested. Lycopene supplements are also fairly expensive.
As a result, it is better to consume lycopene-rich foods as part of a diet high in fruits and vegetables. Tomatoes and tomato products (such as tomato sauce, tomato juice, tomato paste, salsa, tomato soup and spaghetti marinara sauce) are major sources of lycopenes. Watermelon, pink grapefruit, papaya and apricots also contain lycopenes.
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A better diet can help you prepare for surgery, help speed your recovery after cancer treatment, and may help keep your cancer from coming back. In addition, a nutritionist can recommend dietary changes to help you deal with side effects of cancer treatment, including:
- Weight gain
- Fatigue, which can be a side effect of hormone therapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy
- Nausea, a common side effect of chemotherapy
- Taste changes, sometimes related to chemotherapy
- Constipation, or other gastrointestinal problems, which can result from radiation therapy and other treatments.
Based on research from the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR), diets high in red and processed meats have been shown to increase risk of colorectal cancer. Currently, the recommendation to decrease risk for all cancers is to consume less than or equal to 18 ounces of red meat per week. Red meat includes beef, lamb, and pork. Processed meats include ham, bacon, sausages, hot dogs, and salami.
Grilling meat poses another health concern with the combination of the meat and the high heat. This includes not only red meat but fish and poultry as well. When the meat protein is cooked at high temperatures, it forms heterocyclic amines (HCAs), carcinogenic compounds that can damage our DNA. The best way to avoid formation of these compounds is by cooking meat at lower temperatures. Examples of healthier cooking techniques include roasting and stewing.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed when fats and juices from the meat drip onto the heat source/charcoal causing flames and smoke to rise. The PAHs from this smoke also riseand coat the surface of the food. While evidence of their impact on humans is limited, HCAs and PAHs are considered potential cancer promoters.
The factors that can affect the formation of HCAs and PAHs include cooking time, cooking temperature, type of meat, and method of cooking. The high temperature itself, not the source of the heat, is the main factor in formation of the HCAs and PAHs. Foods cooked below the heat source were also shown to produce less of these compounds which may be explained by the juices and fats not dripping down and producing smoke.
Tips for healthier grilling:
- Cook food in the center of the grill and move coals to the side to reduce fat and juices from dripping on the coals and smoke from rising up over the food.
- Use tongs to flip food on the grill to prevent additional juices from dripping. Flip foods frequently.
- Marinate meats before grilling: even 30 minutes has been shown to reduce the formation of PAHs and HCAs.
- Trim fat from meat to reduce fat drip flare-ups.
- Partially cook meats in the microwave or oven before grilling and pour off the juices.
- Shorten grill time by using thinner and leaner cuts of meat, checking with a thermometer to prevent overcooking, and cooking over a low flame. Remove meat from the grill before it chars.
- Make kabobs which have smaller amounts of meat and require less cooking time.
- Line grill with foil that has holes in it. Fat will be allowed to drip down but this prevents smoke from rising up to coat meat and will prevent smoke flare-ups.
- Cook food at low temperatures and on a high grill rack.
- Cut off the charred portions from meat.
- Grill more vegetables and fruit. These can include zucchini, bell peppers, onions, mushrooms pears, bananas, and peaches. Put a light amount of oil on them to prevent sticking to the grill.
Nutritionists are available to meet with you at the SCCA clinic. Ask your doctor or nurse to refer you for an appointment, or if you have questions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. You may also ask your team coordinator or scheduler to make an appointment with a nutritionist.