Blood Disorders Facts
Blood disorders, also called hematologic conditions, can be either benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) treats both types of disorders.
Our expert team of hematologists and oncologists has extensive experience with an array of diseases that affect the blood; the bone marrow, where blood cells are produced; and the lymphatic and immune systems, which are closely linked with the blood.
What Are Blood Disorders?
The main components of blood are:
- Red blood cells (RBCs), which carry oxygen throughout the body
- White blood cells (WBCs), which fight infection
- Platelets, which protect against easy bleeding by helping your blood to clot
- Plasma, the liquid part of blood that carries blood cells, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and many other substances
Abnormalities in any of these components or in related cells or tissues can cause a blood disorder. The disorder and its symptoms depend on precisely what’s gone wrong.
Some blood disorders—including leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, and myeloproliferative neoplasms—cause unusually low or high levels of blood cells. In some cases the blood cells don’t form or mature as they should and cannot carry out their normal functions.
- A low level of RBCs is called anemia. A high level is called polycythemia.
- A low level of WBCs is called leukopenia. A high level is called leukocytosis.
- A low level of platelets is called thrombocytopenia. A high level is called thrombocytosis.
Other blood disorders have to do with a deficiency of substances the body needs, such as clotting factors in hemophilia, or with the presence of unwanted substances in the blood, such as abnormal proteins in amyloidosis. There are many other specific types of blood disorders.
Doctors at SCCA see people with a wide range of blood disorders, including cancers, anemias, hemoglobinopathies, bone marrow failure syndromes, bleeding disorders, platelet disorders, blood clots (thrombosis), plasma cell disorders, and other blood-related problems (including rare disorders, like POEMS syndrome). These are some of the many blood disorders we treat. Click the disorder name for more information.
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (and the subtype acute promyelocytic leukemia, APL)
- Aplastic anemia
- Bone marrow failure syndromes, inherited
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
- Chronic myeloid leukemia
- Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
- Diamond-Blackfan anemia
- Dyskeratosis congenita (DKC)
- Eosinophilic disorders
- Essential thrombocythemia
- Fanconi anemia
- Gaucher disease
- Hemolytic anemia
- Hereditary spherocytosis
- Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
- Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes
- Iron-deficiency anemia
- Langerhans cell histiocytosis
- Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia
- Monoclonal gammopathy
- Multiple myeloma
- Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)
- Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN)
- Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)
- Pernicious anemia (B12 deficiency)
- Polycythemia vera
- Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)
- Pulmonary embolism (PE)
- Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS)
- Sickle cell disease